Combustion Flame White


General Definitions

  • Combustion Fundamentals — Introduces attendees to the basics of combustion. Topics include: the fire triangle, fuels type and properties, air/fuel ratios, lower explosive limits (LEL), basic burner designs — including nozzle and premixed, exhaust (draft).
  • Gas Train and Controls Basics — Explains the function of the gas train, how various components/function each operate, typical arraignments, and good practices to follow for safe operation.
  • Valve Testing: SSOV and Manual — The types of valves (manual ball, plug, auto safety shutoff valves) and their possible failure modes. Concepts covered include: bubble testing, lubricating plug valves, and resolution options.
  • Interlock Testing — Brief review of ways to test common interlocks and permissive. Devices included: pressure switches, purge timers, position switches (including proof of closure), flame detectors, and temperature interlocks.
  • Gas Piping and Repairs (NFPA 54) — The process for the safe removal and re-introduction of fuel gas piping when installing or repairing existing piping is reviewed. Lessons learned from two recent high-profile events are discussed as well as the changes that occurred in the National Fuel Gas Code (NFPA 54) as a result of them. The module concludes with tips for a safe start-up after repair/installation work.
  • Combustion Control and Tuning (Basics) — Describes the features of four common types of firing rate control systems. Explains Fuel/Air ratios and goes over burner tuning and configuring premix systems. Customized to equipment and addresses key concepts, furnace pressures, burner set-up, control methods, system adjustments, nuisance trips and temperature overshoot issues.
  • Relay and PLC Basics — How to read, understand, and apply three common control diagrams: ladder logic, PLC logic, and P&ID diagrams.
  • Hazard Recognition — Instructs attendees how to use their senses (look, listen and feel) to observe and recognize possible safety hazards related to combustion. A suggested prestart checklist is stepped through while looking at photos of possibly dangerous scenarios. Function, composition, installation, and operational troubleshooting using a multimeter. Common temperature controller types as well as a brief review of PID loop parameters and troubleshooting.
  • Burner Management Systems — Sequencing overview, fault conditions, BMS functions, and maintenance procedures.
  • Troubleshooting Combustion Systems — Review of BMS faults, common issues, systematic approach to troubleshooting.
  • Emissions and Analyzers — NOx, CO measurements, limits, controlling and tuning issues, proper tools and equipment use.
  • Fuel Oil Systems — Various fuel types used in combustion process, BTU factors, dangers and code related repairs.
  • Oxygen Burners and Systems — Review of oxygen burner types, fuel train considerations, and common applications.
  • Radiant Tube Systems — Detailed review of radiant tube systems including: tube types, burner types, common applications, and maintenance tricks.
  • Burners: Air Heating — Reviews typical burners used for air heating applications including: types, applications, selection, and maintenance.
  • Burners: High Temperature — Reviews typical burners used for high temperature (furnace) applications including: types, applications, selection, and maintenance.
  • Furnace Efficiency Basics — Illustrates how energy is lost from process combustion systems and demonstrates money-saving tips and processes when running furnaces. Introduces terms such as “preheated air,” “air infiltration,” and “pulse firing.”
  • Heat Recovery Process — Review of heat recovery technologies including: recuperature, regenerative, and plate and frame applications.

Equipment Definitions

Boilers –
Basic overview of boiler types and operation. The session covers combustion issues related to the safe operation of boiler systems, focusing on industrial/manufacturing plants and facilities.

Boiler Waterside Safety Devices –
Overview of common boiler specific interlocks and controls. Including water level controls, steam side safeties, and water pump controls.

Boiler Standards Overview (NFPA 85 & ASME CSD-1) –
Designed to provide a navigational understanding of the boiler codes related to combustion. Common issues and questions are discussed as well as recent changes of note.

Oven and Furnace Systems (Overview) –
Describes basic types and designed of common industrial ovens and furnaces.

Oven and Furnace Standards Overview (NFPA 86) –
Designed to provide a navigational understanding of the boiler codes related to combustion. Common issues and questions are discussed.